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for Format and Reference

When an in-text citation is made, the reference must be presented in the form of "Author-Year," and its title must be listed in the References section at the end of the paper.

I. In-text Citation: Indirect Citation
1. General Principle
    When an author’s name is mentioned within the sentence of the cited reference, present the author’s name with the year in brackets; and when the author’s name is not mentioned, present the family name of the author along with the year of publication in brackets at the end of the sentence.
2. One Author
    According to Hong (2012) …
    … have correlations with appearance (Roach, 2015).
3. Two Authors
    According to Hong & Kim (2012) …
    … have correlations with appearance (Hong & Kim, 2015).
4. “Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, & Author 5 (year)” or “(Author 1, Author 2, Author 3, Author 4, & Author 5, year)”; and in subsequent citations, present them as “Author 1 et al. (year)” or “(Author 1 et al., year)”.
    According to Hong, Kim, Lee, Yoo, & Choi (2014) … as in the previous study of Hong et al. (2014) …
    … have correlations with appearance (Hong, Kim, Lee, Yoo, & Choi, 2014). As found by the previous study of (Hong et al., 2014) …
5. Six or more Authors: Present them as “Author 1 et al. (year)” or “(Author 1 et al., year).”
    According to Hong et al. (2015) …
    … have correlations with appearance (Hong et al., 2015).
6. When the author is an organization, elaborate on its full name when the name first appears, and use the abbreviation from the second mention onwards.
    When it first appears: (Korea Fashion Association [KFA], 2014)
    When repeated: (KFA, 2014)
7. When the author is unknown, present the abbreviated form of the title in italics in lieu of the author’s name.
    (Merriam-Webster's., 1993) …
8. When two or more references are cited in one sentence, distinguish them with a semi-colon (;). The listing order follows the order of the References list.
    Regarding ostentation of clothes, previous studies (Hong, 2014; Johnson, 1998) are ...
9. When different authors have the same family names and publication years, include the authors’ initials for in-text citations.
    According to M. Kim (2012)..., According to Y. Kim (2012)...
    (E. Johnson, 2001; L. Johnson, 2001)
10. When citing different publications from the same author in the same year, mark them as (year a), and (year b).
    Kim (2014a), Kim (2014b)
11. In principle, all contents should be included in the body. However, footnotes may be allowed, when needed, for presenting the original text, etc.
12. For recitation from other references, mark the references used by the author in the References section.
II. In-text Citation: Direct Citation
1. When directly quoting a sentence or phrase from a reference in the body of a text, mark the author, year, and page.
  • Short quotations no longer than 2 lines shall be cited in quotation marks (i.e. “ ”) and with the page number in brackets.
    Regarding the definition of apparel studies, Lee (2004) cited "where a wide range of questions about apparels are dealt with as research topics and the processes to pursue the answers are scientifically conducted, this is what apparel studies truly means.” (p.19)

    Apparel studies is defined as “where a wide range of questions about apparels are dealt with as research topics and the processes to pursue the answers are scientifically conducted.” (Lee, 2004, p.19)
  • smaller than the text, and the lines shall be indented by one character with spaces above and below so that the quotations are clearly separated from the text.

    Lee (2004) explains study methods as below:

    There are two different methods to identify causes that determine a certain phenomenon: theoretical research method that deduces the causes from theories and empirical research that analyzes the phenomenon to infer the causes. The former is called deduction, and the latter induction (p. 25).
  • Direct quote citation from the Web-sites: Article with a name of author (Author, Year), Article without a name of author (‘Key words’, year).

    Ceris(2011) explains as below:

    The LIPs were created with the goal of making more welcoming communities for newcomers, helping them to settle in our communities and integrate into the labour market. To do this, local service providers, from libraries and schools to settlement agencies and employment centres met to explore how to better coordinate services (‘Social Network’, 2011).
Ⅲ. Use of Figures and Tables and Citation
Figures and/or tables shall be inserted near the relevant text
1. Figures
For a figure, mark 〈Fig. Serial number〉and its title under the figure. For the title, capitalize the first letter of each word. Under the title, mark the source of the figure. If there is any further explanation of the figure, insert it between the title and source.
For citations of figures, mark “author, year, and page” under each figure, as with a direct citation. When commenting on a figure within the text, refer to it as 〈Fig. Serial number〉. If the author of the figure is unknown, follow the Guidelines for References.

    <Fig. 1> Filigree Bracelet
    Ancient Shilla Northern mound of
    Hwangnam DaeChong
    (Han, 1980, p. 80)
    <Fig. 2> Straw Hat
    2011, Ralphlauren
    (Firstview Korea, n.d.-a)

    2. Table
    For a table, mark〈Table Serial number 〉 and its title. For the title, capitalize the first letter of each word. When the source is known, insert the source under the corresponding table and mark “author, year, and page” at the right lower end of the table.
    〈Table1〉he Change in Sales in Department Stores and Large Discount Stores
    (Statistics Korea, n.d., p. 20)
Ⅳ. Guidelines for References
1. General Principles
  • Title it References, and list every piece of literature, figures, and tables cited in the text.
  • For author's names, present the family name in full and the first name by initial.
  • List the authors' names in alphabetical order. When several references by the same author are cited, list them from most recent to oldest. Where two or more references by one author are published in the same year, list them in alphabetical order and separate them by (year a), (year b)... .
  • For titles of books, chapters, articles, or webpages, etc., capitalize only the first letter of the first word; and if there is a subtitle, the same rule is applied. For titles of academic papers, capitalize the first letter of each key word.
  • Italicize titles of books or academic papers.
  • Refer to the following items for further details.
2. One Author:
    Kim, M. (2014).
3. Two Authors: Family name in full, First name initial & Family name in full, First name initial (year)
    Kim, M. & Hong, K. D. (2014)
4. Three to Seven Authors: Family name in full, First name initial, Family name in full, First name initial & Family name in full, First name initial (year)
    Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). ...
5. Eight of more Authors: Present the first six authors and the last author and mark "..." in-between. Separate each name with a comma (,) and present first names by initials.
Family name in full, First name initial, Family name in full, First name initial, Family name in full, First name initial, Family name in full, First name initial ... Family name in full, First name initial (year)
    Miller, F. H., Choi, M. J., Angeli, L. L., Harland, A. A., Stamos, J. A., Thomas, S. T., ... Rubin, L. H. (2009). Web site usability for the blind and low-vision user. Technical Communication, 57, 323-335.
6. Present middle names (when available) or two-lettered first name (in the case of Korean names) by initials.
    Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). ...
    When Korean author's name is Hong, Kil-dong: Hong, K. (2015). ...
    When Korean author's name is Hong, Kil Dong: Hong, K. D. (2015). ...
7. Publication by a specified author: Author's name (year), signature (print version or edition). published city, published country: Publisher.
In the case where there is non-English title, create an English title (if not plausible, transliterate the title) and record the Korean title in parallel. Capitalize the first letter of a book title.

Specify the print version if there is a revised edition.
    Peter, J. P., Olson, J. C., & Grunert, K. G. (1999). Consumer behavior and marketing strategy (3rd ed.). London, England: McGraw-Hill.
    Park, S. H. (2008). An investigation on the origin of Shilla golden crown [우리 금관의 역사 를 밝힌다]. Paju, Republic of Korea: Jisik-Sanup Publications.

8. Publication by an organization: Organization name (year), signature . published city, published country: publisher.
Where there is no publisher, such as in the case of old books: signature [Write in the Original of old books] (year).
    Doosan Dong-A. (Ed.) (2002). Doosan world encyclopedia Vol. 21 . Seoul, Republic of Korea: Doopedia.
    Wonhaeng-eulmyo-jeongri-euigwe [園幸乙卯整理儀軌] (1795). Akita, H. (2002). Japanese wooden shoes - footwear of a god [下駄―神のはきもの]. Tokyo, Japan: Hosei University Press.
    Hénault, A (1997). The challenges of semiotics - General Introduction to semiotics [Les enjeux de la semiotique-Introduction a la semiotique generale]. Paris, France: Presses universitaires de France.
  • Where it is not plausible to translate a Korean title into English, mark the Korean title in [ ] next to the English title. The parallel marking shall be limited to book titles and paper titles. English translation shall be easy to understand, and where translation is not applicable, translate a Korean title according to the Korean Romanization (Notification no. 2000-8 of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism). Capitalize the first letter of proper nouns, and present other words in small characters. Do not separate a word unless there is a possibility of confusion in the pronunciation. In this case, a hyphen (-) may be used between syllables.
  • Where a publisher name is not specified in English, follow the rule mentioned in the paragraph above.
  • Mark the official name of the publisher presented in the copyright paper.
9 . W h ere the author is not identified, nor an institution or organization, present the source title in lieu of the author's name. In this case, the title must be italicized.
    Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.).(1993). Springfield, MA, U.S.: Merriam- Webster.
10. Translated Version:
Original author (published year of translated version). Translated version title. (Translator's name in the order of first name and family name, Trans.). Published city, Published country: Publisher (published year of the original book)
    Laplace, P. S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. (F. W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.). New York, U.S.: Dover. (Original work published 1814)
11. Academic Journal Publication: Author's name (year), Paper title, Journal Title, Volume (edition), page. DOI: number
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. doi:xx.xxx/yyyyy
Where a DOI number is assigned, mark the DOI number. Capitalize only the first letter of the paper's title, and the first letter of key words for the journal title. Distinguish subtitles with a colon (:).
    Lee, M. S. & Kim, C. H. (2014). A study on modern applicability of traditional Korean embroidery technique. Journal of the Korean Society of Costume, 64(7), 45-56. doi:10.7233/jksc.2014.64.7.045 Roach, M. L., Wilcox, R. T. & Laver, J. (1998). The visible self: Perspectives on dress. International Journal of Costume, 5(2), 18-22.
12. Dissertation (Degree thesis)
Author's name (year), Dissertation title (Degree). Institution, City, Country.
Capitalize the first letters of a dissertation title and degree title. Capitalize the first letter of key words for school names.
For non-disclosed dissertations:

    Heisey, F. (1984). A quantitative methodology for generating specifically fitted garment patterns (Unpublished master's thesis). University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, U.S..
    Lee, M. (2008). Adoption and diffusion of fashion products (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.

    For disclosed dissertations, present the accessible database name.

    Lee, M. (2008).Adoption and diffusion of fashion products (Doctoral dissertation, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea). Retrieved from http://library.snu.ac.kr/pdfvie w.jsp?bid=3140026

    Where a UMI registration number is available, present the number.

    McNeil, D. S. (2006). Meaning through narrative: A personal narrative discussing growing up with an alcoholic mother (Master's thesis). Available from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database. (UMI No. 1434728)
13. For a research paper or a single chapter included in an edited publication:
Author's name (year), paper title or chapter name, Signature, Editor's name Edition, Published city, Published country: Publisher.
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

  • For a single editor, mark (Ed.); and for multiple editors mark (Eds.).
    O'Neil, J. M. & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: A metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York, U.S.: Springer.
14. Video References (such as CD-ROM, etc.) Author (year), Title, Signature [CD-ROM or Motion picture]. Published country: Publisher. Capitalize only the first letter of the title, and first letters of key words for signature.
    National Folk Museum of Korea (Ed.) (2005). Bracelet, An illustrated book of history and culture the Korean people: Clothing habits [CD-ROM]. Republic of Korea: National Folk Museum of Korea.

    Smith, J. D. (Producer) & Smithee, A. F. (Director). (2001). Really big disaster movie [Motion picture]. U.S.: Paramount Pictures.
15. Newspaper or Magazine
Where authors are not identified: Article title (Date. Month, Year). Newspaper/Magazine Name, Page.
Where the author is identified: Author's name (Date. Month, Year). Article title, Newspaper/ Magazine Name, Page.
For news articles retrieved from the Internet, apply the Internet References citation rule (as below) in parallel.

    Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash (2015, Feburary 27). Fashionbiz, 5-6.
    Ryu, S. J. (2015, Feburary 27). Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash, Fashionbiz, 5-6. Burrkeoru foreign participation show, American bash (2015, Feburary 27). Retreved from http://translate.google.co.kr/translate?hl=ko&sl=ko&tl=en&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww%2 Efashionbiz%2Eco%2Ekr%2Fmain%2Easp&sandbox=0&usg=ALkJrhgCzW5pguaG45m mNhw5dAfkYvnhsw
16. Internet References
  • Record the full address of Internet sites.

  • Where author's name, published date and title are specified: Author's name (published date: date. month. year). Document title. Website name. Retrieved from website name.

    Parker, T. (2008, May 6). Psychiatry handbook linked to drug industry. The New York Times . Retrieved from http://well.blogs.nytimes.com
    Kim, J. W. (2010, December 12). Gilt-bronze incense burner of Baekje [백제금동대향로]. Retrieved from http://navercast.naver.com/contents.nhn?contents_id=4271

  • Where authors are not identified, present the document title or website title in lieu of the author's name..
    Gilt-bronze incense burner of Baekje [백제금동대향로] (2010, December 12). Retrieved from http://navercast.naver.com/contents.nhn?contents_id=4271.

  • Where the publication date is unknown: mark n.d.
  • Where multiple references that do not have individual titles are used from a single website:
      Firstview Korea (n.d.-a). ...
      Firstview Korea (n.d.-b). ...
  • Insert the form of Internet reference (e.g. Book review, eBook, Data file, PDF document, etc.) in [ ] next to the title. Provide information as detailed as possible.
    Zacharek, S. (2008, April 27). Natural women [Book review]. The New York Times. Retri eved from http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/27/books/review/Zachareck-t.html?page wanted=2
  • Online dictionary or encyclopedia: Where the author's name is not available, present the search keyword(s) first and the dictionary title next.
    Feminism. (n.d.). In Encyclopædia Britannica online. Retrieved from http://www.britannica. com/EBchecked/topic/724633/feminism
17. Patent: Patent applicant name (Date. Month. Year) title, country, patent registration number.
    Matsushita Electric Ind Co Ltd (1989, 12. 14) Clothing drying machine, Japan, Patent registration number 01310697
18. For law names, capitalize the first letter of key words and present as below: Law Name, Article X Paragraph XX (year).
    Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Design Act, Article 3 Section 2 (2011).
19. Figure and Table
    Follow the rules applied to the References and include the sources in the References list.
20. For other reference items not specified above, follow the latest APA style.